Persuading voters is hard. That doesn’t mean campaigns should give up.

Political professionals in both parties are busy strategizing about how to persuade voters. Democratic operatives are fiercely debating how to win back working-class voters in key swing states. Meanwhile, the Republican Party establishment is puzzling over how to beat back populist primary challengers.

Will either be successful? At first glance, our new research “The Minimal Persuasive Effects of Campaign Contact in General Elections” might appear discouraging for such efforts. CONT.

Joshua Kalla (Berkeley) & David Broockman (Stanford), Monkey Cage